Full Spectrum CBD Oils: Key Information
What are cannabinoids?
Cannabidiol (CBD) is the second-most-common cannabinoid produced by the cannabis plant and plays a central role in making cannabis one of the most versatile plants in the world. The non-intoxicating counterpart to tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), CBD is quickly becoming a sought-after cannabinoid due to growing mainstream interest and a wide range of potential uses.
Cannabinoids are chemical compounds found in cannabis and produced by the human body. Endocannabinoids, or internally produced cannabinoids, are an essential component of our bodies’ endocannabinoid system (ECS), which is largely responsible for maintaining internal balance. Phytocannabinoids, or marijuana cannabinoids produced by the cannabis plant, mimic the functions of our endocannabinoids and are responsible for the euphoric effects associated with THC.
Cannabinoids are a class of lipophilic molecules that interact with the body’s endocannabinoid system (ECS). The ECS helps the body maintain functional balance through its three main components: “messenger” molecules that our bodies synthesize, the receptors these molecules bind to, and the enzymes that break them down.
Pain, stress, appetite, energy metabolism, cardiovascular function, reward and motivation, reproduction, and sleep are just a few of the body’s functions that cannabinoids impact by acting on the ECS. The potential health benefits of cannabinoids are numerous and include inflammation reduction and nausea control.
What does the “Full Spectrum” mean?
In its raw form, each cannabis cultivar has its own unique cannabinoid and terpene profile that, among other compounds, contribute to their therapeutic effects. These compounds are created within the plant’s lipid and fat-based trichomes. A full-spectrum extract is a type of cannabis concentrate that aims to capture all of the therapeutic compounds of the raw cannabis plant at the moment that it was processed, without the lipids and fats that hold those compounds together but do not have medicinal benefits.
In a cannabis context, the term spectrum is used to describe the range of compounds produced by the plant’s trichome glands that can potentially produce therapeutic effects. In other words, the full spectrum means the full range of compounds that are produced within the trichome gland.
The goal of a full-spectrum extract is to capture all of the available compounds from the trichomes without altering them, leaving behind the undesirable fats, waxes, and lipids that hold the desirable compounds together.
The cannabis plant can produce more than 400 compounds. Aside from the well-known cannabinoids (THC, CBD, THCA, etc.), cannabis plants produce a wide range of compounds that may potentially have therapeutic uses.
These therapeutic compounds include aromatic terpenes, flavonoids, proteins, phenols, and esters. A full spectrum extract seeks to capture and retain each of these compounds for human consumption.
For instance, a full-spectrum CBD extract will strive to maintain the other compounds of the cannabis plant, including trace amounts of the intoxicating cannabinoid THC. In this case, the biggest advantage of using full-spectrum cannabidiol (CBD) oil over broad-spectrum or CBD isolate, both of which fully remove THC during the extraction process, is a phenomena most commonly referred to as the “entourage effect”. This term is used to describe the highly beneficial synergistic relationship that different cannabinoids, terpenes, and other compounds have when combined.
Each cultivar, or cultivated variety of the cannabis plant, produces a unique chemical profile—the production and expression of which is greatly influenced by environment. Terpene content is strongly inherited, for example, while the total terpene yield per weight of plant tissue is much more dependent on environmental factors. Each unique chemical profile makes up the unique spectrum offered by a given cultivar.
What are terpenes and terpenoids?
Terpenes and terpenoids are a group of natural compounds that give plants their distinctive scents and flavors. More than 200 terpenes have been identified in the cannabis plant, and each cannabis strain has a unique terpene profile that contributes to its smell and taste. Many cannabis terpenes have healing benefits of their own, and they also create a synergistic effect when they interact with marijuana cannabinoids.
Which cannabinoids, terpenes, and terpenoids are found in our Full Spectrum CBD Oil?
Also present in trace amounts (<10) there are: Camphene, 3-Carene, alpha-Terpinene, gamma-Terpinene, Fenchol, DL-Menthol, Camphor, (+/-)-B-Citronellol, Geraniol, (R)-(+)-Pulegone, alpha-Cedrene, Geranyl, Nerolidol, and (+)-Cedrol.
List and description of beneficial terpenes present in CannaIbiza Full Spectrum CBD Oil
Phytol is a diterpene alcohol with an oily consistency and a grassy aroma. This terpene is chlorophyll’s byproduct and is used to synthesize Vitamins E and K1. Naturally occurring in green tea, it’s known for its mild sedative effect and antioxidant properties. Present in hemp in trace amounts, research is investigating its potential anti-inflammatory and anti-convulsive qualities. One 2016 study published in Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology revealed that this terpene offers potential for preventing or treating diseases mediated by oxidative stress. A list of such conditions includes heart disease and neurodegenerative disorders. Another study published in 2013 found that this terpene offers substantial pain relief in animals. According to the authors of the study, these effects are partly due to the terpene’s antioxidant properties. It’s important to mention that phytol is a significant component of green tea, which is a widely known antioxidant. Inflammation and pain often go hand in hand, so many organic compounds that fight inflammation tend to display pain-relieving properties. This terpene is no exception, as several studies testify for its anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. The promising anti-anxiety and anticonvulsant activities of this terpene come from the shared mechanism or the brain’s use of the GABA neurotransmitter. Considered an inhibitory neurotransmitter, GABA blocks or inhibits certain brain signals and decreases activity in the nervous system. It helps fight feelings of anxiety and stress because it attaches to a GABA receptor to produce a calming effect. Most of the studies relating to these properties are conducted on animals, so human research is needed to verify these findings. Aside from being recognized for its mild sedative properties, this terpene may help prevent congenital disabilities caused by Vitamin A. Like many terpenes, it also possesses the ability to fight certain parasites.
Beta caryophyllene is one of the most common and dominant terpenes found in cannabis products, but it doesn’t behave like its cousins. Beta caryophyllene is known for its analgesic applications, which means that it helps with pain. Additionally, you can expect some stress relief and mood elevation when you consume cannabis products high in beta caryophyllene, resulting in a laid back and euphoric experience. Beta caryophyllene’s analgesic properties have been observed in animal studies, where researchers found it regulated both inflammation and neuropathic pain.
Additionally, researchers found the animals observed in the study did not build a tolerance to beta caryophyllene, making it effective for analgesic purposes over a long period of time. Similarly, an in vivo study found that beta caryophyllene served to reduce pain. In addition to its analgesic properties, researchers found that beta caryophyllene offers immunomodulatory effects that can reduce an overreaction of your body’s immune system. An immune system out of balance can lead to the inflammation that drives additional health problems. While beta caryophyllene engages with the ECS much like a cannabinoid, though, it does not have the same type of intoxicating effects as THC.
Alpha-bisobolol is a fragrant terpene that adds a sweet floral scent to chamomile tea. But this little-known terpene with the strange name is also found in cannabis—and studies show it has powerful health benefits that include: Fighting infection, reducing inflammation throughout the body, stopping the growth of cancer cells in a lab setting.
Alpha-bisabolol is found in a small number of plants, including: Chamomile and Candela Tree. Alpha-bisabolol can be an effective antibiotic; this means this terpene could be an effective treatment for infections caused by bacteria such as E. coli or Staphylococcus aureus. Alpha-bisabolol can also reduce inflammation, and its extracts are widely used around the world as an anti-inflammatory and wound healer. This terpene seems to reduce the production of cytokines, proteins made by the immune system in response to inflammation. It also appears to downregulate the production of COX-2 enzymes, which are expressed at sites of inflammation throughout the body.
These enzymes promote the production of hormones called prostaglandins, which are responsible for the pain and swelling that accompanies inflammation.
Many people take medications known as COX-2 inhibitors for conditions such as arthritis, but these medications can also raise the risk of stroke by affecting the production of other hormones that nourish and protect blood vessels.
Alpha-bisabolol could be a safer treatment for chronic pain and inflammation, without the potentially serious side effects. Pancreatic cancer remains one of the most difficult cancers to treat. But one lab-based study on the effects of alpha-bisabolol on pancreatic cancer cell lines reveals that this terpene appears to reduce the mobility and invasiveness of these rapidly growing cells. In general, too, it can support a process called apoptosis, or programmed cell death, which may help to prevent the spread of cancerous cells. Like some other cannabis compounds and terpenes, alpha-bisabolol also appears to promote feelings of relaxation. That’s one reason many people claim chamomile tea can reduce feelings of stress and anxiety. So, it seems alpha-bisabolol can be useful for treating conditions such as depression, anxiety, and insomnia. Its calming properties also make it a useful ingredient in soothing skin preparations for both babies and adults.
Humulene is also known as α-caryophyllene. The subtle earthy, woody, and spicy notes that give hoppy beers their distinct taste and aroma are also partly responsible for giving cannabis its unique scent.
But there’s more to humulene than its herbaceous charm. This terpene is found in a wide variety of plants like sage, ginseng and hops . It has been used for centuries in holistic Eastern medicinal practices.
Humulene is also no stranger to modern biomedical research, including studies on black pepper, hops, and ginseng, and research has proven it to be an effective anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and appetite suppressant.
The medical and therapeutic potential of humulene is expansive and well-researched. A 2016 study shows that it may help terminate cancer cells when combined with phytocannabinoids and other terpenes.
Humulene is present in many therapeutic-grade essential oils and the use of such oils for healing purposes dates back centuries. The terpene is present in Balsam fir oil (a.k.a. Abies balsamea essential oil), and is believed to be an active mechanism in fighting tumors, evidenced by its ability to produce Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS).
The oil was also shown to exhibit antibacterial properties in another study, proving to be active against the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus (a.k.a. golden staph) when administered in small quantities. S. aureus is a bacterium present in our bodies at all times, but it can play a role in a host of nasty infections and diseases when exposed.
Humulene also plays a role in pharmacokinetics—the study of how the body absorbs, distributes, metabolizes, and excretes drugs—showing potential to be distributed rapidly throughout the body via both oral and topical absorption of an oil derived from the tropical plant black sage (Cordia verbenacea). Oil from this plant has also shown anti-inflammatory, antifungal, and antibacterial properties.
Eudesmol is mainly a bi-cyclic hydrocarbon, more precisely known as a sesquiterpenoid. As a rule, the inclusion of oxygen separates terpenoids from terpenes.
Eudesmol has three distinct isomers: alpha, beta, and gamma, which all smell mildly sweet and primarily woody. Medically, eudesmol isomers are viable to fight cancer and tumor growth due to their cytotoxicity to tumor cells.
Secondly, eudesmol is known to bind with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors which is spawning research into its ability to combat nicotine addiction.
Additionally, research has been published regarding eudesmol to mitigate migraines in mice and increase their appetites, which is being extrapolated to say these mechanisms may also apply to humans. Specifically, eudesmol isomers are said to interact with the TRPA1 gene, which is involved in appetite control through calcium channel activation of sensory nerves to increase GVNA (gastric nerve activity).
Linalool is a noncyclic monoterpenoid that is commonly extracted from lavender, rose, basil and neroli oil.
Linalool has established sedative, antidepressant, anxiolytic, and immune potentiating effects.
Additionally, numerous in vitro and in vivo studies proved that this compound exhibited a vast range of pharmacological properties (e.g., anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antimicrobial, and neuroprotective) that are used for medical applications.
Myrcene is the most abundant terpene in modern commercial cannabis. It is better known as the active sedating principle of hops and lemongrass, is also found in basil, mangos, and its namesake, Myrcia sphaerocarpa, a medicinal shrub from Brazil traditionally used to treat diabetes, diarrhea, dysentery, and hypertension. In culinary and perfume use, myrcene’s aroma is earthy, fruity, and clove-like; it is pungent in higher concentrations.
Myrcene synergizes the activities of terpenes and other compounds in a variety of ways. One mechanism that would be of particular note in cannabis is its claimed effect on the permeability of cell membranes, particularly the blood–brain barrier (BBB), increasing transport of cannabinoids into the brain. Myrcene has been shown to enhance transdermal absorption. Myrcene also showed powerful anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic effects in a human chondrocyte model of osteoarthritis.
Lemongrass tea containing high levels of myrcene has played a role in Brazilian folk medicine for its claimed anti-anxiety and pain-relieving properties. The first published claim for myrcene reducing pain was generated in 1990 by scientists in Brazil. They concluded that myrcene reduced pain by increasing the brain and spinal cord’s own opioid chemicals, but this has been debated.
Alpha-pinene is an organic compound of the polyphenolic group terpene. It is a component of many aromatic dietary plants, such as mint, holy basil, amphor, bupleurum, and psidium.
As a potent antioxidant, it inhibits prostaglandin E1 and NF-κB thereby contributing to reported anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic effects.
Limonene is an important monoterpene and a major compound of the volatile oils of citrus plants, available in both enantiomeric forms: (+)-R- and (−)-S-limonene.
Limonene is a building block for the organic synthesis of several compounds. Literature shows that essential oils consisting limonene can present antimicrobial, anti-fungal, antimalarial, and anti-tumoral activities.
β-Pinene is a monoterpene, a class of terpene that consists of two isoprene units, commonly found in plants. β-pinene is one of the two isomers of pinene. It possesses biological activities like antibacterial, antidepressant, cytotoxic, and antimicrobial.